Worldwide, one in each 100 births has congenital heart disease, in accordance with the American Heart Association, reaching 1.35 million sufferers per yr. Prenatal care and early prognosis are important for correct remedy of infants with this situation.
According to the director of research of the Brazilian School of Medicine (Ebramed), Leonardo Jorge Cordeiro, congenital heart disease is a malformation or incomplete formation of the heart and circulatory system, which might happen in the primary eight weeks of being pregnant, the embryonic stage. heart growth.
“With the issues of the cardiocirculatory system, the change may be very totally different, as a result of it may be attributable to the improper design or the dearth of growth of all of the heart’s arteries, comparable to valve issues, veins and arteries associated to the heart” , he defined.
Congenital heart disease is split into cyanotic and acyanotic. As with different forms of heart disease, there are various levels of involvement. Just like there are various kinds of remedy, procedures and surgical procedures. To discover out if the kid has already began the issue, the prognosis is made with a transthoracic echocardiogram, with a Doppler kind, ideally by a health care provider who is aware of about congenital ailments.
The child’s heart has already began to type round 20 weeks of being pregnant, when prenatal morphological ultrasound is often completed. According to the heart specialist, teams associated to congenital ailments and youngsters’s and congenital heart ailments assist to make fetal echocardiography, that’s, with the kid contained in the womb, at all times on the legs, even when there is no such thing as a critical suspicion of issues. morphological ultrasound.
According to Cordeiro, there’s nothing particular concerning the growth of congenital heart disease. There are elements that improve the prospect of heart growth issues, comparable to maternal ailments comparable to diabetes and systemic lupus erythematosus, in addition to rubella disease, can have an effect on the event of the fetal heart in the primary eight weeks of the fetus. Also medicines comparable to lithium, different anticonvulsants and prescribed drugs could cause unintended effects.
Twin pregnancies and in vitro fertilization are additionally thought of to be harmful. In addition to those, a historical past of congenital heart disease or first-degree kinfolk, can be proven as a danger issue for creating heart defects in infants.
According to the knowledgeable, any heart disease that happens later, and isn’t associated to the embryonic growth of the heart, is known as acquired heart disease.
Symptoms may be divided in accordance with the manifestations of the kid’s sickness. Infants have issue breastfeeding, fatigue, heart charge, sweating profusely in the top and toes. In the primary yr of life, there’s weight reduction, progress issues and the looks of heart murmurs, cyanosis (when the newborn seems to be purple), fainting, chest ache and palpitations.
To obtain remedy, there could also be no want for surgical procedure, or three or extra surgical procedures are wanted to restore the affected person’s blood. In addition, there’s a chance that the operations are healing, that’s, they re-establish the conventional heart system, which results in the therapeutic of the particular person, or respiration.
“The lifetime of a affected person with congenital heart disease relies upon each on the kind of heart disease and early detection and remedy. There are some issues that don’t require surgical procedure, so life goes properly, however we even have very critical heart ailments that have been recognized early and so they did all the mandatory procedures on the proper time”, stated the heart specialist.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), about 130 million kids in the world have some kind of congenital heart disease. In Brazil, in accordance with the Ministry of Health, about 29,000 kids are born with congenital heart disease yearly – of those, about 23,000 will want surgical procedure to right the situation. In the southern and southeastern areas, about 80 % of kids with heart disease are recognized and handled. The state of affairs in the north and northeast is totally different, the place as much as 80% of those kids can’t be discovered or handled.
In most instances, households solely discover out that the newborn has a heart downside after start, when a small heart take a look at is completed. Performed in the primary days of life, whereas nonetheless in the maternity ward, this take a look at is carried out with an oximeter, which measures the extent of oxygen in the newborn’s blood and its heart charge. The take a look at is reasonable, quick, non-invasive, painless and acceptable, supplied by the Unified Health System (SUS).